The Age of the Medici Grand Duchy (1537-1743) coincided with the first professionalization of women artists in Italy. At the same time, an equal or greater number of women were creating visual art in one form or another under circumstances that were not conducive to professionalization, as in the case of certain nuns and noblewomen, for instance. Those who achieved renown for their painting and sculpting in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries include Sofonisba Anguissola, Properzia De Rossi, Ippolita Degli Erri, Lavinia Fontana, Fede Galizia, Lucrezia di Panciatichi, Plautilla Nelli, Marietta Robusti, Lucrezia Quistelli della Mirandola, Angela Veronica Airola, Plautilla Bricci, Orsola Maddalena Caccia, Margherita Caffi, Maria De Dominicis, Lucrina Fetti, Giovanna Garzoni, Artemisia Gentileschi, Felicità Lupicini, Elisabetta Sirani, and Virginia Vezzo. The eighteenth century witnessed accelerated growth in the ranks of women artists. Throughout these centuries, numerous works by women artists entered the Medici collections, including several commissioned directly from the artists.